Geography of Darbhanga‘Heart of Mithilanchal’, Darbhanga city is headquarters of Darbhanga division. Located in northern part of Bihar, Darbhanga is an urban agglomeration. Darbhanga city is one of the important cities in Bihar state. Known for its rich past and association with famous Darbhanga Raj, this city is much popular for its cultural and literal traditions. Darbhanga lies between 25.53 degrees - 26.27 degrees N and 85.45 degrees - 86.25 degrees E having an average elevation of 171 feet (52 m). Darbhanga is too famous for trade of Makhana, Mango and Fish.
Darbhanga is spread over 2,279 km² and bounded by Madhubani district on north, by Samastipur district on south, by Saharsa district on east and by Sitamarhi and Muzaffarpur district on west. Darbhanga district consists of three civil sub-divisions viz. Darbhanga Sadar, Benipur and Biraul and 18 blocks. There are 329 panchayats and 1269 villages in this region of Bihar.
Climate of DarbhangaClimate of Darbhanga district is humid subtropical . Winter, summer and rainy seasons are three main seasons which are experienced in this district. Winter starts in November and continues up to February and first half of March is little cool. Thereafter temperature starts rising in second half of March when westerly winds start blowing in this region. Temperature rises up to 43 degrees C during month of May which is the hottest month in the district. Temperature falls and humidity rises when rainy season sets in middle of June. During rainy season moist heat is much oppressive which troubles a lot upto mid-August and rainy season continues upto middle of October. Average rainfall received in Darbhanga district is around 1142.3 mm and 92% of this annual rainfall is received during monsoon season in this district.
Topography of DarbhangaGeographically, Darbhanga is bounded on north by Madhubani district, on south by Samastipur district, on east by Saharsa district and on west by Sitamarhi and Muzaffarpur districts. Darbhanga district devoid of any hills and thus it has a vast alluvial plain. There is a gentle slope in this district from north to south direction with a depression on the centre. When it comes to divide this district on basis of natural divisions, Darbhanga can be split into four natural divisions. First Natural division, eastern part of Darbhanga district comprises of three blocks viz. Ghanshyampur, Kusheshwarasthan and Biraul. These blocks contain fresh slit which is deposited by Kosi River as this entire area was once under influence of Kosi floods until construction of Kosi embankment took place here during Second Five Year Plan. Thus, this region contains large tracts of sandy lands mostly covered with wild marsh.
Second division consists of anchals which lie in south direction of Boorhi Gandak River. This area is the most fertile region in entire Darbhanga district. This part of Darbhanga is located at higher elevation than all other parts of this district. Hence, only few marshes can be found in this area that is why it is well suited for rabbi crops which are grown on large scale in these areas specifically.
Third natural division contains low lying areas of doab which lie between Boorhi Gandak and Baghmati rivers. These low-lying areas of Darbhanga district get floods every year that is why these areas are dotted with chaur and marshes completely.
Fourth division consists of Sadar sub-division of the district. This division contains numbers of streams which water this region and this area contains some up-lands too.
Demography of DarbhangaAs per last recorded Indian Provisional Census in 2011, population of Darbhanga district was aprrox. 3, 921, 971 million and 53% of this population are males and 47 % are females. Darbhanga district has an average literacy rate of 64% (higher than the national average of 59.5%) out of which male literacy rate is 72% and female literacy rate is 56%. About 15% of the population in this district is under 6 years of age. Darbhanga is an Urban Agglomeration which comes under category of class 1 UAs/ Towns. Total population of Darbhanga UA/Metropolitan region is 306,089 as per census 2011. People of different sects reside in Darbhanga and speak several languages which make it culturally rich. Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism and Christianity are the main religions in this district. Maithili is the main language and Hindi is the official language in the district. Along with Urdu and English languages are also spoken in this district.
Rivers in DarbhangaSoil of Darbhanga district is much fertile and perfect for agricultural purpose. Thus, people of this region are mostly involved in agriculture. In fact, agriculture is main occupation and source of income for the people of this district.Mainly, numbers of rivers which originate from Himalayas water entire district of Darbhanga. But Baghmati, Little Baghmati, Kamla and Tiljuga are the four main rivers which water this area. Apart from all these rivers, Boorhi Gandak River also flows through this district.
Flora and Fauna of DarbhangaDue to availability of fertile soil, Darbhanga has much fertile land and thus most of these areas are being used for agricultural purpose. Sisam, Khajur, Sal, Khair and Palmyra trees can be mostly found in this region. Apart from that Mango, Pipal, Jackfruit and Tamarind trees are majorly found near village settlements in this district. Along with few tracts of grasslands are also present in this district.
Darbhanga had been home to wild animals up to end of 18th century. Then, this district saw rapid growth in term of population which increased demand of land. So, forests were cleared for use of land and this eventually resulted in extinct of most of the wild animals of that time in Darbhanga district. Still, wild cats and fox can be found sometimes in this region and jackals are common. Wolves and Hyenas are almost rare to meet now in this district.
One can meet numbers of rare species of birds in this district. There are several species of partridges, quails, ducks, cranes, snipers, sparrows and such other birds which can be easily seen in this district. During winter season numbers of migratory birds also visit Kusheshwarasthan Bird Sanctuary which is located in Darbhanga. Apart from that this district is rich in fish and plenty of fishes are available here. Rohu, Tangra, Katla, Bachwa, Boari and Singhi are most common varieties of fishes found in the district. Hilsa fish can also be found but it is just occasionally.
Geographical details of DarbhangaCountry: India
Geographical Area: 2279 sq km
Altitude: 171 feet (52 m) above sea level
Latitude: 25.53 degrees N – 26.27 degrees N
Longitude: 85.45 degrees E – 86.25 degrees E
Population (2011): 3, 921, 971 million
Density: 1,721/km2 (4,460/sq mi)
Summer Temperature: 43 degrees C (Max), 21 degrees C (Min)
Winter Temperature: 20 degrees C (Max), 6 degrees C (Min)
Rainfall: 1142.3 mm
Languages Spoken: Maithili, Hindi, Urdu and English
Religions: Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism and Christianity
Time Zone: IST (UTC +5:30)